The last few years have witnessed an important shift in international policy focus to a growing consensus that development and poverty reduction efforts cannot be disassociated from the challenges created by conflict and violence. Often in the past development actors were concerned with violent conflicts only insofar as they affected the security of states and the capacity of states to provide services, public goods and to maintain the rule of law. Less attention was paid to the individuals that lived in areas of violent conflict, beyond their immediate humanitarian needs. Yet, 1.5 billion people in the world are currently affected by persistent forms of conflict and violence (World Bank 2011). We need to ask: Who are the people affected by violent conflict? How do they live? What do they do to secure lives and livelihoods? What options do they have? What choices do they make? Why are they affected by violence and how? How does violence change their options and choices? Are they part of the conflict and if so what led them into it?