Leander Heldring joined Kellogg in 2020 after receiving his PhD in economics from the University of Oxford. His research interests are in economic development, political economy and economic history, with a particular focus on the role of government in facilitating or stifling innovation, entrepreneurship and growth.

HiCN Working Papers Series


The Origins of Violence in Rwanda

Leander Heldring, 

This paper shows that the intensity of violence in Rwanda’s recent past can be traced back to the initial establishment of its precolonial state. Villages […]